Types Of Joint Replacement
Spinal Disc Disease
The knee is the largest joint in the body and having healthy knees is required to perform most everyday activities. The knee is made up of the lower end of the thighbone (femur), the upper end of the shinbone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The ends of these three bones where they touch are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth substance that protects the bones and enables them to move easily. The menisci are located between the femur and tibia. These C-shaped wedges act as "shock absorbers" that cushion the joint. Large ligaments hold the femur and tibia together and provide stability. The long thigh muscles give the knee strength. All remaining surfaces of the knee are covered by a thin lining called the synovial membrane. This membrane releases a fluid that lubricates the cartilage, reducing friction to nearly zero in a healthy knee.
The hip is one of the body's largest joints. It is a ball-and-socket joint. The socket is formed by the acetabulum, which is part of the large pelvis bone. The ball is the femoral head, which is the upper end of the femur (thighbone). The bone surfaces of the ball and socket are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth tissue that cushions the ends of the bones and enables them to move easily. Hip replacement surgery is usually necessary when the hip joint is worn or damaged to the extent that your mobility is reduced and you experience pain even while resting.
A fracture is a broken bone. A bone may be completely fractured or partially fractured in any number of ways (crosswise, lengthwise, in multiple pieces). Bones are rigid, but they do bend or "give" somewhat when an outside force is applied. However, if the force is too great, the bones will break, just as a plastic ruler breaks when it is bent too far. The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bone's breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter.
There are two basic categories of patients: those who have congenital deformities, otherwise known as birth defects, and those with developmental deformities, acquired as a result of accident, infection, disease, or in some cases, aging. Some common examples of congenital abnormalities are birthmarks; cleft-lip and palate deformities; hand deformities such as syndactyly (webbed fingers), or extra or absent fingers; and abnormal breast development.
In most cases revision surgery is not due to an error or mistake of a previous operation. Spinal surgery is a complex field and even the very best and most experienced surgeons do not always get excellent results. Common reasons for revision surgery include such problems as pseudarthrosis (failure to achieve solid fusion) which may be due to poor tissue healing and patient related factors. Another element to consider is that the spine is a living and dynamic structure. Even after apparent successful surgery the function and shape of the spine can deteriorate requiring further surgery to remedy a problem.
Exercising is good for you, but sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper gear can cause them. Some people get hurt because they are not in shape. Not warming up or stretching enough can also lead to injuries. Other possible treatments include pain relievers, keeping the injured area from moving, rehabilitation, and sometimes surgery.
Spinal fractures can vary widely in severity. While some fractures are very serious injuries that require
emergency treatment, other fractures can be the result of bones weakened by osteoporosis.
Most spinal fractures occur in the thoracic (midback) and lumbar spine (lower back) or at the connection of the two (thoracolumbar junction). Treatment depends on the severity of the fracture and whether the patient has other associated injuries. Many fractures heal with conservative treatment; however severe fractures may require surgery to realign the bones.
Spinal Disc Disease
Only a person who has experienced a damaged spinal disk understands the agony and helplessness it brings. The pain can be excruciating. Every movement seems to make it worse. This pain is a warning signal that you should heed. If you take appropriate action, the discomfort usually stops, and the problem can be corrected. Spinal disks are rubbery pads between the vertebrae, the specialized bones that make up the spinal column.