With an estimated 77 million people of all ages living with both diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, India is the second most severely impacted country in the world. Diabetes can cause blood sugar levels to rise if it is not continuously and carefully managed, which raises the chance of serious side effects, including heart attack and stroke.
There are several types of diabetes, and each has a unique management strategy. Not all types of diabetes are brought on by obesity or a sedentary lifestyle. Some have existed from childhood. Type 1, 2, and gestational diabetes are the three most prevalent varieties of the disease, which we go into more depth about below. Monogenic diabetes and cystic fibrosis diabetes are less frequent forms of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes cannot be avoided.
People may take a few precautions to help avoid type 2 diabetes. Among the measures to prevent type 2 diabetes, some are:
- Preserving an average body weightage.
- Adhering to a balanced diet free of processed foods, added sugars, and saturated fats.
- Regular exercising.
Before pregnancy, the females should maintain a healthy weight to lower their risk of acquiring gestational diabetes.
Types of Diabetes | What Diabetes Treatment is Required
Insulin enables a person’s food-derived glucose to enter the body and provide energy to the cells. Usually, the following cycle leads to insulin resistance:
- A person is more likely to be unable to create enough insulin to cover the amount of glucose or sugar they consume if they have genetic or environmental factors causing a hindrance.
- The body produces more insulin to deal with high blood sugar levels.
- As a result of the pancreas’ inability to cope with the increasing demands, the blood begins to circulate with too much blood sugar, resulting in damage.
- As blood sugar levels continue to climb, insulin loses its ability to deliver glucose to cells over time.
Insulin resistance develops progressively in type 2 diabetes. This is why medical professionals frequently suggest modifying one’s lifestyle to stop or break this cycle.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
In type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin since your pancreas cannot produce it. To regulate your blood glucose level, insulin in required numerous times throughout the day, especially at mealtimes and during hydration.
The administration of insulin can be done in several ways. You can administer insulin using a needle, syringe, pen, or insulin pump. Another possibility for certain patients may be an artificial pancreas, commonly known as an automated insulin administration system.
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
By altering their lifestyle, individuals with type 2 diabetes may regulate their blood glucose levels. These lifestyle adjustments include eating and drinking healthily, exercising regularly, and reducing calories if overweight or obese.
Numerous individuals with type 2 diabetes must also take diabetic medications. These medications may include diabetic tablets or injectable medications like insulin. You could eventually require more than one diabetic medication to regulate your blood sugar. Even if you don’t normally take insulin, you might need it occasionally, such as if you’re pregnant or receiving medical attention in a hospital.
Gestational Diabetes Treatment
If you have gestational diabetes, you may control your blood sugar level by maintaining a nutritious diet and engaging in 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical exercise, such as brisk walking. The doctor can also suggest that you take insulin alongside taking a healthy diet and exercising if these two are not enough to keep your blood glucose level within the desired range.
Taking diabetes medications daily might occasionally feel like a hassle, regardless of the kind of diabetes you have. Maintaining your blood glucose levels with new drugs and improved delivery methods may be simpler. Find out from your doctor which diabetes treatments and delivery methods will suit your needs and fit into your routine.
Diabetes Treatment | Overall Health, Insulin Intake, and Medications
Depending on the kind of diabetes you have, the diabetes treatment plan may include oral medications, insulin, and blood sugar monitoring. A balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and regular exercise are all crucial components of diabetes treatment.
Overall Health Diabetes Treatment
Taking care of your overall health is undoubtedly the best treatment for diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight with a good diet and exercise routine is crucial for diabetes treatment as well as your general health:
- Eating well: There is no particular diet for diabetes. Increase the number of fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and whole grains in your diet. These are nutrient-dense meals with high fibre content and low in fat and calories. Additionally, you will consume fewer sweets, processed carbs, and saturated fats.
Knowing what to consume and how much to consume might be difficult. It is better to develop a meal plan that suits your lifestyle, dietary choices, and health objectives with the aid of a qualified dietitian. In type 1 diabetes, insulin is required as part of the diabetes treatment. The treatment procedure here might also include carbohydrate tracking
- Exercising: All individuals require frequent aerobic exercise, but people suffering from diabetes need regular exercise effectively. REgular exercise reduces blood sugar levels, which is the ultimate goal of taking all sorts of medications. Additionally, exercise increases insulin sensitivity in the body, indicating that the body uses less insulin to deliver sugar to your cells.
Aim for 150 minutes or more of moderate physical activity each week or at least 30 minutes or more on most days of the week. However, it will be better to consult with the doctor before fixing an exercise regimen.
Insulin Intake | Diabetes Treatment
One might argue that the best treatment for diabetes is to take Insulin. Insulin comes in a variety of forms. Each type’s “onset,” or speed at which it begins to act, and “duration,” or how long it takes for its effects to take effect, varies. The largest effect is experienced when most insulin types reach their peak. The insulin’s effects begin to diminish a few hours or so after the peak.
The various insulin subtypes are included in the table below, along with information on their onset times, peaks, and durations.
|Insulin Type||How Fast It Commences to Work (onset)?||When It heightens?||How Long Does It Sustain (duration)?|
|15 minutes||1 hour||2 to 4 hours (rapid)
5 to 7 hours (ultra)
|Rapid-acting, Inhaled||10 to 15 minutes||30 minutes||3 hours|
|Regular, also called Short-Acting||30 minutes||2 to 3 hours||3 to 6 hours|
|Intermediate-Acting||2 to 4 hours||4 to 12 hours||12 to 18 hours|
|Long-Acting||2 hours||Does not Peak||24 hours|
|Ultra Long-Acting||6 hours||Does not Peak||36 hours or longer|
Premixed insulin is additional insulin made up of a mixture of the insulins shown in the table above. Insulin that has been pre-mixed begins to act in 15 to 60 minutes and lasts for 10 to 16 hours. Depending on which insulins are combined, the peak time varies.
As for when and how to take your insulin, heed your doctor’s instructions. Speak with your doctor if you’re concerned about the price.
What are the Medications for Diabetes Treatment?
To treat type 2 diabetes, medications can be prescribed by the doctors. In addition to this, you need to eat well, drink water, and exercise regularly. Many medications for diabetes can be taken orally. These drugs are referred to as oral medication.
Taking the prescribed medication can work in different respects;
- They encourage the pancreas to produce more insulin.
- Stop your liver from producing and releasing glucose, which reduces the amount of insulin required to transport sugar into your cells.
- Prevent the stomach or intestinal enzymes from breaking down carbohydrates, reducing their absorption, or increasing your tissues’ sensitivity to insulin.
The most commonly prescribed medications for diabetes are;
- alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
- DPP-4 inhibitors
- Glucagon-like peptides
In gestational Diabetes or prediabetes, it is essential to check blood sugar levels often throughout the day. If it’s high, dietary adjustments and exercise can be sufficient to lower it.
According to research by Nature, between 15% and 30% of pregnant women who acquire gestational Diabetes will require insulin to reduce their blood sugar. But don’t worry, as insulin is not harmful to the unborn infant. However, to take the right dosage, you must follow the doctor’s recommendations.
Can Diabetes be Managed?
For efficient diabetes treatment, self-monitoring of blood sugar levels is essential. This helps to control when to take insulin and other medications and when to plan meals and exercise.
While self-monitoring blood glucose devices come in various designs, they typically come with a meter and test strip for taking readings. Additionally, a lancing tool will puncture the skin to draw a small amount of blood.
Necessary Precautions to Follow while Testing Blood Sugar at Home
- Make sure both hands are free from debris and dried off before handling the test strips or the meter.
- Using test strips just once and storing them in their original containers to prevent outside moisture from affecting the outcome.
- After testing, close the canisters.
- Verifying the expiration date in advance of usage.
- Keeping the meter and the strips in a cool, dry place.
- Bringing the meter and test strips to appointments so a primary care doctor or specialist may assess their efficacy.
Checking Blood Sugar Levels
A lancet is a tool used to prick the index finger, followed by using a blood glucose meter to measure blood sugar levels. These meters need a drop of blood the size of a grain.
Take care of the following things while drawing the blood and taking the test;
- Draw blood with just their fingertips as they yield more reliable findings.
- Washing the skin under warm, soapy water to prevent food residue from getting inside the gadget and affecting the result.
- Deciding on a tiny, delicate lancet for optimal comfort.
- Comfortably adjusting the lancet’s depth settings.
- Drawing blood from the finger’s side, which produces less discomfort. Using the middle, ring, and little fingers could be more comfortable.
- Using a “milking” motion to draw blood to the surface rather than applying pressure to the lancing spot.
Making lifestyle changes is a necessary part of remembering to self-monitor, but it doesn’t have to be a painful process.
If Diabetes is not managed, Will it Aggravate the Condition?
Diabetes is a serious, ongoing illness. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) reports that in 2017, the disease was the sixth most common cause of mortality in the United States.
Despite being controllable, diabetes can have serious side effects, some of which can be deadly if not addressed immediately.
Diabetes may cause various health issues, such as gum disease, tooth decay, vision loss, foot issues including numbness that can cause ulcers and go untreated, heart disease, nerve damage like diabetic neuropathy, and stroke.
When the body does not properly excrete water, renal dysfunction can result in water retention, problems with bladder control, and kidney failure.
Keeping an eye on blood sugar levels and limiting glucose intake might help patients avoid diabetes’ more harmful consequences.
People with Diabetes must carefully control their blood sugar levels and build a healthy lifestyle to manage the illness effectively. When the body does not create insulin, type 1 diabetes develops. When the body’s insulin demands are no longer met, type 2 develops.
Managing Diabetes and enhancing glucose absorption may require administering insulin and taking additional drugs, depending on the type of Diabetes. Through regular exercise and a healthy diet, a person with prediabetes can lower their chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes must be managed since the consequences, including renal failure and stroke, can be very serious. If you are going through any of the diabetes-related symptoms, make sure to visit Santokh Hospital, where we provide an effective care plan to manage diabetes.