Types Of Joint Replacement
Spinal Disc Disease
The knee is the largest joint in the body and having healthy knees is required to perform most everyday activities. The knee is made up of the lower end of the thighbone (femur), the upper end of the shinbone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The ends of these three bones where they touch are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth substance that protects the bones and enables them to move easily. The menisci are located between the femur and tibia. These C-shaped wedges act as “shock absorbers” that cushion the joint. Large ligaments hold the femur and tibia together and provide stability. The long thigh muscles give the knee strength. All remaining surfaces of the knee are covered by a thin lining called the synovial membrane. This membrane releases a fluid that lubricates the cartilage, reducing friction to nearly zero in a healthy knee.
The hip is one of the body’s largest joints. It is a ball-and-socket joint. The socket is formed by the acetabulum, which is part of the large pelvis bone. The ball is the femoral head, which is the upper end of the femur (thighbone). The bone surfaces of the ball and socket are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth tissue that cushions the ends of the bones and enables them to move easily. Hip replacement surgery is usually necessary when the hip joint is worn or damaged to the extent that your mobility is reduced and you experience pain even while resting.
A fracture is a broken bone. A bone may be completely fractured or partially fractured in any number of ways (crosswise, lengthwise, in multiple pieces). Bones are rigid, but they do bend or “give” somewhat when an outside force is applied. However, if the force is too great, the bones will break, just as a plastic ruler breaks when it is bent too far. The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bone’s breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter.
There are two basic categories of patients: those who have congenital deformities, otherwise known as birth defects, and those with developmental deformities, acquired as a result of accident, infection, disease, or in some cases, aging. Some common examples of congenital abnormalities are birthmarks; cleft-lip and palate deformities; hand deformities such as syndactyly (webbed fingers), or extra or absent fingers; and abnormal breast development.
In most cases revision surgery is not due to an error or mistake of a previous operation. Spinal surgery is a complex field and even the very best and most experienced surgeons do not always get excellent results. Common reasons for revision surgery include such problems as pseudarthrosis (failure to achieve solid fusion) which may be due to poor tissue healing and patient related factors. Another element to consider is that the spine is a living and dynamic structure. Even after apparent successful surgery the function and shape of the spine can deteriorate requiring further surgery to remedy a problem.
Exercising is good for you, but sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper gear can cause them. Some people get hurt because they are not in shape. Not warming up or stretching enough can also lead to injuries. Other possible treatments include pain relievers, keeping the injured area from moving, rehabilitation, and sometimes surgery.
Spinal fractures can vary widely in severity. While some fractures are very serious injuries that require emergency treatment, other fractures can be the result of bones weakened by osteoporosis.
Most spinal fractures occur in the thoracic (midback) and lumbar spine (lower back) or at the connection of the two (thoracolumbar junction). Treatment depends on the severity of the fracture and whether the patient has other associated injuries. Many fractures heal with conservative treatment; however severe fractures may require surgery to realign the bones.
Spinal Disc Disease
Only a person who has experienced a damaged spinal disk understands the agony and helplessness it brings. The pain can be excruciating. Every movement seems to make it worse. This pain is a warning signal that you should heed. If you take appropriate action, the discomfort usually stops, and the problem can be corrected. Spinal disks are rubbery pads between the vertebrae, the specialized bones that make up the spinal column.
Knee replacement surgery was first performed in 1968. Since then, improvements in surgical materials and techniques have greatly increased its effectiveness. Total knee replacements are one of the most successful procedures in all of medicine.According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,
Have you been suggested a knee replacement surgery by your orthopedic doctor? Do you have apprehensions and nervousness before going for it? We would say, do not worry!
Knee replacement has become a popular surgery to relieve people from severe knee joint pain occurring either due to arthritis or other joint problems. The advanced medical science technology now is able to perform highly functional artificial knee replacements that nearly duplicate your natural knee movement.
With high success rate of over 90%, this routine and almost predictable surgery has benefited millions of patients around the world. India alone is witnessing over 15% year-on-year increase in knee replacement surgeries with the availability of advanced technology and highly experienced orthopedic surgeons in the country. Here we will guide you to understand this beneficial procedure.
Who undergo knee replacement surgery?
Generally patients with a history of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis undergo this surgery. When your knee gets severely damaged due to arthritis or injury it becomes hard to perform simple day-to-day activities, such as walking, climbing stairs or even sitting etc., and then doctors prescribe a knee replacement surgery.
Remember, age is not a determinant factor for it. The surgery can be performed on people aged between 50-80 years facing degenerative arthritis to even teenagers with juvenile arthritis. The decision to undergo knee replacement is solely based your intensity of pain, discomfort in daily activities, and disability.
What is the knee replacement surgery procedure?
Knee replacement (knee arthroplasty) operation is removing the surface of the damaged knee bones and replacing them with artificial implants. These implants are made up of metal alloys, ceramic material, or strong plastic parts, which are joined to your knee bone by acrylic cement.
The type of implant in a knee replacement surgery depends upon various factors such as your age, weight, health, and lifestyle. Your orthopedic surgeon would discuss in detail with you about which type of implant best suited in your case.
There are two common types of knee replacement surgeries –
Total Knee Replacement (TKR) and Partial Knee Replacement (PKR). As the name suggest in TKR complete knee bones are replaced with implants while in PKR only a part of knee is replaced. PKR is done in patients who have osteoarthritis in only one compartment of their knee.
Like any other surgery, knee replacements are also performed under anesthesia and take approximately two hours.
Recovery after the knee replacement surgery
After the knee replacement surgery, you would be made to move your knee joints the very next day with the help of your assigned physiotherapist by the hospital. Initially, you will be helped to walk with parallel bars in hospital, and later using crutches, walker, or cane till your knee is able to completely support your body weight. The stay at hospital is of about four to five days.
How to increase the life expectancy of your knee implant
- Avoid heavy weight lifting
- Avoid excessive stair climbing
- Do not kneel
- Avoid low height seat surfaces
- Maintain appropriate body weight
- Avoid high-impact activity like jogging, baseball, basketball etc.
- Consult your surgeon before taking up any new sport or activity
Knee replacement surgeries have proved to be highly successful treatment for patients with acute knee pain who are not even able to perform their routine life activities, improve their mobility and quality of life.
If you have any knee replacement queries, call our patient advisors for ‘free’ guidance.