High blood sugar levels and insulin resistance are the two conditions that cause type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is a certain condition in which the body cannot respond to insulin as well as it once could, impairing your ability to absorb and utilize the sugar in meals as fuel adequately.
Because of this, the blood sugar levels remain high, which can eventually result in a chronic illness that, if left untreated and unmanaged, can have a major impact on your health. Although this process is reversible when type 2 diabetes is detected and treated early, many of the symptoms and problems can be avoided.
What are the Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
Numerous variables, including lifestyle choices and genetics, contribute to type 2 diabetes, the most frequent kind of diabetes. If you don’t exercise regularly and are obese or overweight, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. In individuals with type 2 diabetes, excess weight frequently contributes to insulin resistance. Another factor is the distribution of body fat.
Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and blood vessel disease are all associated with excess abdominal fat. Insulin resistance is a disorder in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not utilize insulin properly, and it is typically the first sign of type 2 diabetes. Genes can also make someone more likely to develop type 2 diabetes by making them more likely to be overweight or obese.
Most kinds of diabetes lack a recognized precise explanation. Sugar builds up in the bloodstream due to the inadequate insulin production from the pancreas. Diabetes of either type can result from a mix of hereditary and environmental causes.
How Insulin Works in Diabetes
Located below the stomach, the pancreas gland produces the specific hormone called insulin. After intaking food, the pancreas produces and releases a naturally occurring hormone: insulin. Insulin aids in the movement of glucose from the bloodstream to the cells that make up every part of the body, where it is used as fuelled energy.
In people with type 2 diabetes, the body develops insulin resistance. The hormone is no longer being used effectively by the body. The pancreas must work harder as a result to produce more insulin. This can eventually harm the cells of the pancreas. Hence, the pancreas could eventually lose the ability to make any insulin. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream when the body does not produce enough insulin or when the body doesn’t utilize it effectively.
Your body’s cells become energy-starved as a result. Doctors are unsure of the precise cause of this chain of events. It can be related to cell signaling and control or pancreatic cell malfunction. Although the body’s resistance to insulin is the sole cause of type 2 diabetes, several variables often raise your chance of developing it.
Type 2 Diabetes | Signs And Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes can appear gradually over several years and might be so subtle that you might not even notice them. Many individuals with type 2 diabetes are symptom-free. Some people are unaware they have the condition until they experience health issues linked to diabetes, notably hazy vision or heart issues. However, the most common and prominent symptoms have been listed below:
- Excessive Urination: The urgency to urinate more frequently than normal is known as polyuria. Depending on your lifestyle, the drugs you’re taking, and how much alcohol you consume, the frequency of toilet visits varies. However, peeing more than 7 or 8 times daily can indicate a type 2 diabetes symptom.
- Weight Loss: If you have type 2 diabetes mellitus and have not altered your diet or exercise regimen, weight loss may be a warning indication.Due to the significant loss of glucose in diabetes, the body converts the body fat into energy to function. Thus, Type 2 diabetes may induce weight loss with no apparent explanation. Dieting consciously, engaging in regular exercise, or using diuretics—medications that enhance urination—are all obvious reasons for weight reduction.
- When your blood sugar levels are high, the eye swells, causing blurred vision. However, the blurred vision might appear unexpectedly and disappear at times.
- The frequency and severity of headaches can range from mild to severe.
- Yeast infections could occur as a result of the fact that yeast consumes sugar. Since higher blood glucose levels can also raise urine sugar levels, this might foster the growth of yeast and infection-causing bacteria.
- Extremity paresthesia, or tingling hands and feet, may resemble the sensation you experience when your foot “falls asleep” and may be an early type 2 diabetes symptom due to damage to your tiny blood vessels.
- Polydipsia or Excessive Thirst: This condition, also called dipsogenic diabetes insipidus, can produce a lot of diluted urine due to consuming an excessive quantity of fluids. In diabetes, the kidney is forced to overwork that results in the consumption of excess glucose. You get dehydrated when the kidneys can no longer handle the extra glucose that is discharged into the urine along with fluids from the tissues. A cottony sensation in the mouth is frequently accompanied by extreme thirst. This is popularly known as Diabetic Thirst. The hypothalamus’s thirst-regulating system may get damaged, resulting in primary polydipsia.
- Hyperphagia or Excessive Hunger: Hyperphagia is characterized by constant hunger worse than the hungry feeling you get after skipping meals. People with diabetes frequently experience hyperphagia as a result of their low insulin levels. It may be hyperphagia if you’ve eaten a substantial, well-balanced meal (consider a dinner-sized plate), yet you still feel hungry afterward.
It’s crucial to remember that most people do not exhibit diabetic symptoms. Even if you don’t have any symptoms, it’s important to be tested for type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially if you have additional risk factors like being overweight or have a family history of the disease.
Type 2 Diabetes Management | Ways and Methods
Type 2 diabetes has no known cure. But you can control the illness by leading a healthy lifestyle and using medicine when necessary. In conjunction with your healthcare professional, manage your:
- Blood pressure: Avoiding smoking, exercising regularly, and adhering to a balanced diet will help in lowering blood pressure. Your doctor might prescribe an ACE inhibitor or beta blocker if your blood pressure is too high.
- Cholesterol: Stick to a diet reduced in salt, sugar, trans fat, and saturated fat. Your healthcare practitioner may suggest a medication to decrease cholesterol called statins.
- Blood sugar Monitoring: You can achieve your blood sugar goal using a blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Regular A1c checks, oral drugs (pills), insulin treatment, or injectable non-insulin diabetic medications are other options your doctor may suggest.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet and Best Eating Habits
Generally speaking, a food plan for Type 2 diabetes has to contain the following:
Inquire about a food plan ideal for you from your doctor or a nutritionist.
- Lean Protein Diet: Chicken, eggs, and shellfish are lean proteins low in saturated fats. Beans, tofu, and nuts are all examples of plant-based proteins.
- Limit Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates that have undergone little processing: White bread, spaghetti, and potatoes are refined carbohydrates that can quickly raise blood sugar levels. Consider whole grains like oatmeal, brown rice, and whole-grain pasta as your choice of carbohydrates since they gradually raise blood sugar.
- No additional salt: High blood pressure can be caused by eating too much sodium or salt. Eliminate processed foods, such as those in cans or packages, from your diet to reduce salt intake. Instead of salad dressing, select spices without salt and substitute healthy oils.
- No additional sugars: Steer clear of sweet meals and beverages like soda, pies, and cakes. To drink, go with water or unsweetened tea.
- Consume Veggies: Eat veggies that aren’t starchy: Because these vegetables contain fewer carbs, they don’t raise blood sugar levels. Broccoli, carrots, and cauliflower are among the examples.
What is the Treatment or Medication for Type 2 Diabetes?
Along with diet and exercise, patients can also use medications to control their diabetes. Your doctor may suggest oral type 2 diabetes treatment. These are oral medications in the form of tablets or liquids. For instance, the medication metformin aids in regulating the quantity of glucose your liver generates.
In some circumstances, modifying one’s lifestyle is sufficient to control type 2 diabetes. If not, several medicines might be useful. Some of these medicines consist of:
|Metformin||This can enhance how your body reacts to insulin and reduce blood sugar levels. For most type 2 diabetics, it is the initial line of therapy.|
|Sulfonylureas||These oral type 2 diabetes treatment drugs assist your body in producing more insulin.|
|Meglitinides.||These medicines work quickly and briefly to encourage your pancreas to produce more insulin.|
|Thiazolidinediones.||These increase the sensitivity of your body to insulin.|
|Inhibitors of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4)||These less potent drugs work to lower blood glucose levels.|
|Agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1||These lower blood sugar levels and impede digestion.|
|Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2)||These aid in removing sugar from your body through urine by the kidneys.|
Each of the medications on the above list has potential negative effects. Finding the appropriate drug or drug combination to manage your diabetes requires expertise, advice and consultation.
The doctor may also prescribe insulin treatment if the body isn’t producing enough insulin. In addition to this, the doctor might also refer to a long-acting injection that you can administer at night, or you might need to provide insulin numerous times daily.
You can also take insulin to aid your body in using sugar more effectively. The following types of insulin are available:
- Self-injectable insulin is administered by shot. Most people administer insulin to a fleshy area of their body, like their abdomen. A vial of injectable insulin or an insulin pen is also an option.
- Your mouth is used to ingest insulin by inhaling, although they are only available in a rapid-acting type.
- Insulin pumps release insulin continually, much as a functioning pancreas would. Pumps inject insulin into your body through a little cannula (thin, flexible tube). Pumps are linked to a computerised gadget that allows you to regulate insulin dosage and frequency.
COVID-19 And Type 2 Diabetes
Infection with COVID-19 may soon join the list of variables that raise the risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a recent study. Researchers examined the medical records of more than 181,000 VA and discovered that COVID patients had a higher likelihood of getting a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes a year after their infection compared to VA patients who did not get the illness. Even those who had minor instances could attest to this.
The results imply that similar to obesity or high blood pressure, a past COVID infection may independently increase a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, additional investigation is required to validate the association and ascertain the precise relationship between COVID and diabetes.
Diabetes is a major, perhaps fatal, condition that has to be closely monitored and efficiently controlled with the right medicine and by adopting a healthy lifestyle. A closely monitored and thriving lifestyle, frequent checkups, and the right medications may lead to a long and healthy life.